The identity of the 144,000 who have their “Father’s name written on their foreheads” is one of the great puzzles in the book of Revelation. Because these people are said to be “from all the tribes of Israel,” they are often understood to be Israelites of some kind. But there’s a very good reason to believe that they are not exclusively Israelites, but rather a different group that includes some Israelites.
The list of the tribes of Israel in the description of the 144,000 in Revelation is different from any other such list in the Bible in two significant ways:
(1) the names are different and
(2) the order is different.
Elsewhere in the Bible, these names are typically listed in one of two ways. When they are being presented as the sons of Jacob, they are listed by birthright, according to the seniority of his wives and concubines and the birth order of their sons:
Sons of Leah
Reuben, Simeon, Levi, Judah, Issachar, Zebulun.
Sons of Rachel
Sons of Bilhah
Sons of Zilpah
On the other hand, when the names represent the tribes of Israel, that is, territorial and civic entities, Levi is not listed because his descendants became temple servants and were not assigned any territory. To get back to a total of twelve, Ephraim and Manasseh are listed in place of their father Joseph. When the names represent the tribes, they are often listed in geographic order, roughly from south to north.
In Revelation, Levi and Joseph are both on the list, suggesting that the sons of Jacob are in view. However, Manasseh also appears on the list, even though all of his descendants are already included in Joseph—this is a redundancy. And Dan, for some reason, is missing. So we have one tribe too many and one tribe too few. And the order isn’t even close to being correct either by birthright or geography.
So what’s going on here? As I’ve argued in this article, I believe that here in Revelation we have a “portrayal of the church as the new Israel in the names and order of the tribes.” That is, the names are presented in such a way as to show that the community of Jesus’ followers is the continuation of the people of God flowing out of the community of ancient Israel.
Specifically, in the portrayal of the 144,000:
• Judah comes first because Jesus was from that tribe as the Messianic heir to David’s throne. He is the “lion of the tribe of Judah.”
• Reuben comes next representing believing Israelites, the “firstborn” who belong to God.
• Then come four names representing the tribes descended from Jacob’s concubines, who come last by birth order, but in the community of Jesus’ followers, “the last shall be first.” These names represent the Gentiles, who at the time of the book’s writing are actually coming to faith ahead of the Israelites.
• However, one of the four names, Manasseh, is a replacement for Dan. The tribe of Dan was the first to fall into idolatry and the first to be carried off into exile. This represents the danger of apostasy in general (one of the main concerns of Revelation), and perhaps also how Judas Iscariot fell away and was replaced by Matthias.
• The remaining sons of Jacob’s full wives make up the last six names on the list, expressing the expectation that ultimately “all Israel will be saved.”
The 144,000, in other words, represent the community of all who believe in Jesus, whether Jew or Gentile. They are a symbolic representation of the reality that is described more literally immediately afterwards, the “great multitude that no one could count, from every nation, tribe, people and language.”
This is another of the places where the book of Revelation is creatively adapting an image from the First Testament to speak to New Testament realities, in this case the continuity between the covenant communities of both testaments; they are one people of God. This same theme is encountered in other places in Revelation as well, such as when the new Jerusalem is seen to have “the names of the twelve tribes of Israel” on its gates and “the names of the twelve apostles of the Lamb” on its foundations, or when the human community around the throne of God is represented as 24 elders, depicting the first and new covenant communities, 12 being the covenant number in the book. But in this case the continuity of the covenants is symbolized by 12 x 12 (144) rather than 12 + 12 (24). The symbol is intensified by multiplication by 10 x 10 x 10 (1,000), representing the totality of those who belong to the community.